GAMMA GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE

Code
400.4350
Name
GAMMA GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE
Category
None
Department
Chemistry
Start Date
Expiration Date
Synonyms
GGTP; GGT
CPT Codes
82977
Site
Main Lab
Reference Test
ATLAS Test Code

Specimen Information

Type

Gold, SST

Volume

1.0 ml

Transport Info

Room Temperature
7 day stability

Refrigerated
7 day stability

Frozen
1 year stability

Fasting Required?
False
Patient Instructions

Reference Range

2-50 IU/L

Methodology

Enzymatic Rate

Clinical Significance

Differentiation of the source of increased serum alkaline phosphatase (GGT is not present in the bone); useful to diagnose obstructive jaundice, intrahepatic cholestasis, and pancreatitis; diagnose metastatic carcinoma in the liver (CEA, alkaline phosphatase, and GGT used together are useful markers for hepatic metastasis from breast and colon primaries); diagnose chronic alcoholic liver disease.
GGT is the test for cholestasis during or immediately following pregnancy.
It is also used as an indicator of chronic and heavy alcohol abuse.

Elevated GGT is found in all forms of liver disease. Measurement of GGT levels is used in the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis, as well as primary and secondary liver tumors. It is more sensitive than alkaline phosphatase, the transaminases, and leucine aminopeptidase in detecting obstructive jaundice, cholagistis, and cholecystitus. GGT levels rise earlier in the liver disease and to higher values than leucine aminopeptidase or 5-nucleotidase levels. Moderate elevations are seen in infectious hepatitis. However, elevated GGT levels have also been noted in chronic alcoholism, diabetes, and certain neurological disorders. Normal levels of GGT are seen in skeletal diseases; thus GGT in serum can be used to ascertain whether a disease is skeletal or hepatobiliary.Increased levels of gamma glutamyl transferase are found in cholestatic liver disease and in hepatocellular disease when there is an element of cholestasis. Levels are increased with chronic intake of excess alcohol and with certain drugs (esp. phenytoin), as a result of enzyme induction. Pancreatitis and prostatitis may also be associated with increased levels. Levels may be normal early in the course of acute hepatocellular damage e.g., acute viral hepatitis, paracetamol hepatotoxicity.

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