BENZODIAZEPINES, QUANTITATIVE GC/MS, URINE
- BENZODIAZEPINES, QUANTITATIVE GC/MS, URINE
- Start Date
- Expiration Date
- Librium®, Valium®, Xanax®, Tranquilizers
- CPT Codes
- Reference Test
- Transport Info
- Fasting Required?
- Patient Instructions
- Reference Range
Negative (less than assay limit of detection) Benzodiazepines detectable by this procedure include: - Nordiazepam (Desmethyldiazepam) and Oxazepam, both of which are produced directly and/or indirectly from the metabolism of Chlordiazepoxide, Clorazepate, Demoxepam, Diazepam, Halazepam, Medazepam, and Prazepam. - Temazepam, which is also a metabolite of Diazepam. - a-Hydroxyalprazolam as a metabolite of Alprazolam.(Oxazepam is also available itself as a drug.)
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)
Confirm positive screen results by an alternate, specific method; detect use
Benzodiazepines belong to a broad classification of CNS-depressant drugs known as sedative/hypnotics. Although widely prescribed, benzodiazepines are also abused, usually by polydrug abusers, who take them for their euphoriant effects. Chronic benzodiazepine use can cause physical dependence, with withdrawal symptoms of insomnia, agitation, irritability, muscle tension, and, in more severe cases, hallucinations, psychosis, and seizures. Benzodiazepines vary greatly, but in general they are well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, distribute widely to body tissues, and, because they are lipid soluble, readily penetrate the blood-brain barrier and are stored in fatty tissues, from which they are slowly released. They are extensively metabolized by the liver. Depending on the drug, the resulting metabolites may be inactive glucuronide or sulfate conjugates or active compounds that may appear in higher concentrations and have longer half lives than the parent drug. Half lives of benzodiazepines range between 5 and 150 hours, whereas half lives of their active metabolites may be as long as 250 hours. For this reason, and the lipophilicity of these drugs, the urine of chronic benzodiazepine user may test positive for weeks or even months after discontinuation of use. Positive result indicates exposure to drug and does not necessarily indicate impairment.