ALPHA-1-ANTITRYPSIN

Code
900.0275
Name
ALPHA-1-ANTITRYPSIN
Category
None
Department
Send-Out
Start Date
Expiration Date
Synonyms
A1AT; A1A; Alpha-1-Protease Inhibitor
CPT Codes
82103
Site
SBMF
Reference Test
28142
ATLAS Test Code

ALPHA 1

Specimen Information

Type

Gold, SST

Volume

1.0 ml

Transport Info

Refrigerated

Fasting Required?
False
Patient Instructions

Reference Range

90-200 mg/dL

Methodology

Nephelometry

Clinical Significance

Aid in the diagnosis of juvenile and adult cirrhosis of the liver. Deficiency has been associated with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, severe protein-losing disorders, and pulmonary emphysema. Alpha-1-antitrypsin is a proteinase inhibitor and inhibits particularly the serine proteases. Both hereditary alpha-1-antitrypson deficiency and elevated values during an acute-phase reaction are associated with specific syndromes. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency states often have a genetic cause. Evident clinical manifestations, essentially involving diseases of the liver and lung, do not occur until the alpha-1-antitrypsin concentrations have fallen to 30 to 40% of the norm. Whereas children are predominantly affected by disease of the liver, adults are more inclined to develop pulmonary diseases. In homozygous, adult smokers with hereditary alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency dyspnoea or emphysema develops on average 20 years earlier than in non-smokers. Liver diseases caused by hereditary alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency are sometimes found to exhibit normal serum concentrations due to an acute-phase reaction of the inflamed hepatic parenchyma. Elevated alpha-1-antitrypsin values are not caused by genetic defects but in most cases, due to an acute-phase reaction to infection and inflammation. Here, the concentrations rise to three times the norm. Elevated values also occur during pregnancy and following ingestion of oral contraceptives.

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