ALPHA-1-ANTITRYPSIN

Code
900.0275
Name
ALPHA-1-ANTITRYPSIN
Category
None
Department
Send-Out
Start Date
Expiration Date
Synonyms
A1AT; A1A; Alpha-1-Protease Inhibitor
CPT Codes
82103
Site
SBMF
Reference Test
28142
ATLAS Test Code

Specimen Information

Type

Gold, SST

Volume

1.0 ml

Transport Info

Refrigerated

Fasting Required?
False
Patient Instructions

Reference Range

90-200 mg/dL

Methodology

Nephelometry

Clinical Significance

Aid in the diagnosis of juvenile and adult cirrhosis of the liver. Deficiency has been associated with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, severe protein-losing disorders, and pulmonary emphysema.

Alpha-1-antitrypsin is a proteinase inhibitor and inhibits particularly the serine proteases. Both hereditary alpha-1-antitrypson deficiency and elevated values during an acute-phase reaction are associated with specific syndromes. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency states often have a genetic cause. Evident clinical manifestations, essentially involving diseases of the liver and lung, do not occur until the alpha-1-antitrypsin concentrations have fallen to 30 to 40% of the norm. Whereas children are predominantly affected by disease of the liver, adults are more inclined to develop pulmonary diseases. In homozygous, adult smokers with hereditary alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency dyspnoea or emphysema develops on average 20 years earlier than in non-smokers. Liver diseases caused by hereditary alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency are sometimes found to exhibit normal serum concentrations due to an acute-phase reaction of the inflamed hepatic parenchyma. Elevated alpha-1-antitrypsin values are not caused by genetic defects but in most cases, due to an acute-phase reaction to infection and inflammation. Here, the concentrations rise to three times the norm. Elevated values also occur during pregnancy and following ingestion of oral contraceptives.

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