PHENYTOIN (DILANTIN)

Code
600.4400
Name
PHENYTOIN (DILANTIN)
Category
None
Department
Chemistry
Start Date
Expiration Date
Synonyms
Dilantin
CPT Codes
80185
Site
Main Lab
Reference Test
ATLAS Test Code

Specimen Information

Type

Gold, SST or Red, Plain

Volume

1.0 ml

Transport Info

Room Temperature
4 day stability

Refrigerated
4 day stability

Frozen
1-2 month stability

Fasting Required?
False
Patient Instructions

Reference Range

10-20 ug/mL

Methodology

Turbidimetric

Clinical Significance

Used in the diagnosis and treatment of phenytoin overdose and in monitoring levels of phenytoin to ensure proper training.

Phenytoin (Dilantin) is one of the most widely prescribed anticonvulsants and is occasionally used as a myocardial antiarrhythmic. In the treatment of epilepsy, phenytoin is indicated for grand mal epilepsy (major motor), cortical focal seizures and temporal lobe epilepsy.The total concentration of a drug in the blood consists of the protein-bound fraction and the free fraction of which only the free drug is considered to be pharmacologically active. Because phenytoin is highly bound to plasma proteins (89-95%), any alteration in the protein binding of phenytoin due to uremia, hypoalbuminemia, ingestion of other drugs or age can result in a significantly different clinical response to a total phenytoin concentration. When a patient's clinical response does not agree with the total phenytoin concentration, or the protein binding of a patient is believed to be abnormal, the free phenytoin level may correlate more accurately than the total level with the clinical effectiveness or toxicity of the drug. In such cases, the determination of the free level of phenytoin is essential.

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